Monday, 31 October 2016

Loop : C Language

C Language Loop Baner

Loop

Suppose you’re a class teacher and your college organized a tour for somewhere so you have assigned a task to fill up tour fee form. Total 200 hundred students in your class, in this situation you need to reach each student seat and collect fees. If we analysis from computer point of view for this scenario then you need to take total 200 step for achieve this.

This was real life an example which creates a basic idea of repetitive task. This type of task needs some automatic process which minimizes our effort then loop is your solution. Following are some example of task where you need loop.

  • Printing all numbers between 1 to 100
  • Printing your name a number of times
  • Accessing some continuous item like arrays

C language gives you three types of loops to accomplished repetitive task.

  • While
  • For
  • Do-while

While Loop

Syntax:
while-loop

Sunday, 30 October 2016

July, 2012 A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX AND SHELL PROGRAMMING

 July, 2012
A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX AND SHELL PROGRAMMING

PART ONE
(Answer all the questions)

1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate one and enter in the “tear-off” answer sheet attached to the question paper, following instructions therein. (1x10)
1.1 Who developed the Linux?
A) Charles Babbage
B) Linus Torvalds
C) Alan Turing
D) None of the above
1.2 What terminology is not used in the Linux?
A) Shell
B) Process
C) File
D) Folder

January, 2013 A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX AND SHELL PROGRAMMING

January, 2013
A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX AND SHELL PROGRAMMING

PART ONE
(Answer all the questions)

1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate one and enter in the “tear-off” answer sheet attached to the question paper, following instructions therein. (1x10)
1.1 How to switch from text mode to GUI mode in linux?
A) <Ctrl><Tab>F7
B) <Ctrl><Shift>F7
C) <Shift><Tab>F7
D) <Ctrl><Alt>F7
1.2 Which one of the following gives Process ID in UNIX?
A) pid
B) showpid
C) ps
D) none of the above

July, 2013 A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX AND SHELL PROGRAMMING

July, 2013
A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX AND SHELL PROGRAMMING


PART ONE
(Answer all the questions)

1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate one and enter in the “OMR” answer sheet supplied with the question paper, following instructions therein. (1x10)
1.1 Which Linux command is used to assign privileges over a particular file to a designated user?
A) chroot
B) chown
C) assign
D) chgrp
1.2 According to the Linux filesystem hierarchy standard, which of the following directories would be
an appropriate location for a user to install a shared application to?
A) /sbin
B) /dev/user/bin
C) /usr/local/bin
D) /etc/bin

Friday, 28 October 2016

UGC Net Computer Science Paper 3 July-16 Page 8


71. Which of the following is characteristic of an MIS ?
(1) Provides guidance in identifying problems, finding and evaluating alternative
solutions, and selecting or comparing alternatives.
(2) Draws on diverse yet predictable data resources to aggregate and summarize data.
(3) High volume, data capture focus.
(4) Has as its goal the efficiency of data movement and processing and interfacing
different TPS.


72. How does randomized hill-climbing choose the next move each time ?
(1) It generates a random move from the moveset, and accepts this move.
(2) It generates a random move from the whole state space, and accepts this move.
(3) It generates a random move from the moveset, and accepts this move only if this
move improves the evaluation function.
(4) It generates a random move from the whole state space, and accepts this move only
if this move improves the evaluation function.

UGC Net Computer Science Paper 3 July-16 Page 7

61. The region of feasible solution of a linear programming problem has a _____ property in
geometry, provided the feasible solution of the problem exists.
(1) concavity
 (2) convexity
(3) quadratic
 (4) polyhedron

62. Consider the following statements :
(a) Revised simplex method requires lesser computations than the simplex method.
(b) Revised simplex method automatically generates the inverse of the current basis
matrix.
(c) Less number of entries are needed in each table of revised simplex method than
usual simplex method.
Which of these statements are correct ?
(1) (a) and (b) only
 (2) (a) and (c) only
(3) (b) and (c) only
(4) (a), (b) and (c)

UGC Net Computer Science Paper 3 July-16 Page 6

51. Which of the following information about the UNIX file system is not correct ?
(1) Super block contains the number of i-nodes, the number of disk blocks, and the start
of the list of free disk blocks.
(2) An i-node contains accounting information as well as enough information to locate
all the disk blocks that holds the file’s data.
(3) Each i-node is 256-bytes long.
(4) All the files and directories are stored in data blocks.

Answer C
Explanation : 

The default bytes per inode is approximately 16384. If you're running out of inodes, you might try for
example:mkfs.ext4 -i 8192 /dev/mapper/main-var2

52. Which of the following option with reference to UNIX operating system is not correct ?
(1) INT signal is sent by the terminal driver when one types <Control-C> and it is a
request to terminate the current operation.
(2) TERM is a request to terminate execution completely. The receiving process will
clean up its state and exit.
(3) QUIT is similar to TERM, except that it defaults to producing a core dump if not
caught.
(4) KILL is a blockable signal.

Answer D
Explanation : 

Thursday, 27 October 2016

IF statement : C Language

If-Else

Conditional operator

Before start writing something about this post I want to ask you a question.

Is computer IQ is greater than human?

What is your answer Yes/NO?

Answer

Computer IQ is zero. If IQ is zero then how can computer work smartly and take decision like human.

It is possible of IF statement which enable your computer to make decision. That is why every programming language support if-else statement.

Syntax

If(condition)
{
                If condition is true
                Then this part will be run
}
Else
{
                If condition is false
                Then this part will be run
}

Wednesday, 26 October 2016

HTML : Text Layout


Text Layout

Text layout defines position of text on a webpage. For make any matter or text effective we use many things like
  • New line
  • Paragraph
  • Space
  • Tab

Tuesday, 25 October 2016

Write a program to print only consecutive number of an array?

Q : Write a program to print only consecutive number of an array?

Answer:  : 


/*  ###################################
         Girfa : Student Help
         Consecutive Number
         For More Program Visit : http://girfahelp.blogspot.in/2012/09/some-program-of-c-language.html
    ###################################
*/
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
    int ar[5],i;
    clrscr();
    for(i=0;i<5;i++)
    {
         printf("Enter %d position number>> ",i+1);
         scanf("%d",&ar[i]);
    }
    printf("\n\tOriginal Array\n");
    for(i=0;i<5;i++)
         printf("\t%d",ar[i]);
    printf("\n\tConsecutive Number\n");
    for(i=0;i<5;i++)

Monday, 24 October 2016

January, 2014 A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX AND SHELL PROGRAMMING

 January, 2014
A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX AND SHELL PROGRAMMING

PART ONE
(Answer all the questions)


1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate one and enter in the “OMR” answer sheet supplied with the question paper, following instructions therein. (1x10)
1.1 The nature of open source software
A) Software and source code available to all
B) The freedom to distribute software and source code
C) The ability to modify and create derived works
D) All of the above
1.2 Runlevel 6 is reserved for
A) Shutdown
B) Very basic commands
C) Reboot
D) Starting most of the machines services

July, 2014 A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX & SHELL PROGRAMMING

July, 2014
A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX & SHELL PROGRAMMING

PART ONE
(Answer all the questions)

1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate one and enter in the “OMR” answer sheet supplied with the question paper, following instructions therein. (1x10)
1.1 Which one of the following is used for file system check at startup?
A) syscheck
B) check
C) fsck
D) rootchk
1.2 Which one of following is used to redirect output to a file while still redirecting to another
program?
A) tee
B) >
C) >>
D) 2>

January, 2015 A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX & SHELL PROGRAMMING

January, 2015
A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX & SHELL PROGRAMMING

PART ONE
(Answer all the questions)

1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate
one and enter in the “OMR” answer sheet supplied with the question paper, following
instructions therein. (1x10)
1.1 An ________ is a program whose function is to enable other programs to use the computer’s
hardware.
A) Operating system
B) Firmware
C) Application Software
D) All of the above
1.2 Thompson and Ritchie rewrote their UNIX operating system in ________ Language.
A) PASCAL
B) FORTRAN
C) C
D) C++

Heading : HTML

HTML Heading Tutorial

In our school day we make heading to highlight some text. In HTML heading is used same way.
Heading makes a text bold and change line. HTML has 6 different size heading. Heading is also important for SEO point of view you should have some heading on your page for better result in SEO. 

<h1>Girfa : Student Help </h1>
<h2>Girfa : Student Help </h2>
<h3>Girfa : Student Help </h3>
<h4>Girfa : Student Help </h4>
<h5>Girfa : Student Help </h5>
<h6>Girfa : Student Help </h6>

Output

Girfa : Student Help

Girfa : Student Help

Girfa : Student Help

Sunday, 23 October 2016

Write a program to print an array in reverse order?

Write a program to print an array in reverse order?

/* ##################################
      Girfa : Student Help
      Reverse an array
      for more program visit : http://girfahelp.blogspot.in/2012/09/some-program-of-c-language.html
   ################################### */

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
      int ar[5],i;
      clrscr();
      for(i=0;i<5;i++)
      {
            printf("Enter %d position number>> ",i+1);
            scanf("%d",&ar[i]);
      }
      printf("\n\tOriginal Input\n");

Scanf : C Language Function

Scanf C Language Function

Scanf

A function is use to take input from keyboard and transfer to a variable.

Syntax

Scanf(“format string”,&variable_list);

Format string : %d,%c,%f,%s has been use as format string .

Variable_list : Name of variable followed by address operator where input though keyboard been transferred.

Example

Scanf(%d”,&a);  Integer input
Scanf(“%c”,&a); character input

Thursday, 20 October 2016

fclose : C Language stdio.h

fclose

 Closes a stream

 Declaration:  int fclose(FILE *stream);

 Remarks:

fclose closes the named stream.

All buffers associated with the stream are flushed before closing.

System-allocated buffers are freed upon closing.

Buffers assigned with setbuf or setvbuf are not automatically freed. (But if
setvbuf is passed null for the buffer pointer, it will free it upon close.)

 Return Value
  þ On success, returns 0
  þ On error, returns EOF

 Portability:

DOS
Yes
UNIX
Yes
C++ Only


Wednesday, 19 October 2016

Syllabus : M4.3-R4: INTRODUCTION TO ICT RESOURCES

Objective of the Course

This course has been designed to provide an introduction to Computer Hardware and Networking troubleshooting & maintenance. The student will be able to troubleshoot problems of PC and replace the defected parts of the computer. Students will understand the basic networking concepts and they will be able to establish and manage small networks.

At the end of the course students will be able to:

  •  Assemble and disassemble a PC
  •  Effectively use miscellaneous utilities such as: Compression, CD writing, Antivirus etc.
  •  Establish and configure a small LAN
  •  Perform simple network administration operation

Syllabus : M4.2-R4: INTRODUCTION TO MULTIMEDIA

Objective of the Course

This course aims to introduce the fundamental elements of multimedia. It will provide an
understanding of the fundamental elements in multimedia. The emphasis will be on learning
the representations, perceptions and applications of multimedia. Software skills and hands
on work on digital media will also be emphasized. On completion of the subject, the
students will understand the technologies behind multimedia applications and master the
skills for developing multimedia projects. After successfully completing the module student
should be able to:

  •  Summarize the key concepts in current multimedia technology.
  •  Create quality multimedia software titles.

Syllabus : APPLICATION OF .NET TECHNOLOGY

Objective of the Course

The objective of the course is to introduce .NET technology which provides multilanguage
environment to develop windows based software development. The focus is on

• .NET Framework
• Programming Language C#
• Visual Basic
• ASP .NET (for web application)

Syllabus : A3-R4: PROGRAMMING AND PROBLEM SOLVING THROUGH ‘C’ LANGUAGE

Objective of the Course

The objectives of this course are to make the student understand programming language,
programming, concepts of Loops, reading a set of Data, stepwise refinement, Functions, Control
structure, Arrays. After completion of this course the student is expected to analyze the real
life problem and write a program in ‘C’ language to solve the problem. The main emphasis of
the course will be on problem solving aspect i.e. developing proper algorithms.


  • After completion of the course the student will be able to
  •  Develop efficient algorithms for solving a problem.
  •  Use the various constructs of a programming language viz. conditional, iteration and
  • recursion.
  •  Implement the algorithms in “C” language.
  •  Use simple data structures like arrays, stacks and linked list in solving problems.
  •  Handling File in “C”.

Syllabus : A3-R4: PROGRAMMING AND PROBLEM SOLVING THROUGH ‘C’ LANGUAGE

Objective of the Course

The objectives of this course are to make the student understand programming language,
programming, concepts of Loops, reading a set of Data, stepwise refinement, Functions, Control
structure, Arrays. After completion of this course the student is expected to analyze the real
life problem and write a program in ‘C’ language to solve the problem. The main emphasis of
the course will be on problem solving aspect i.e. developing proper algorithms.


  • After completion of the course the student will be able to
  •  Develop efficient algorithms for solving a problem.
  •  Use the various constructs of a programming language viz. conditional, iteration and
  • recursion.
  •  Implement the algorithms in “C” language.
  •  Use simple data structures like arrays, stacks and linked list in solving problems.
  •  Handling File in “C”.

Syllabus : A2-R4: INTERNET TECHNOLOGY AND WEB DESIGN

Objective of the Course

The aim of this course is to provide you the conceptual and technological developments in the field of Internet and web designing with the emphasis on comprehensive knowledge of Internet, its  applications and the TCP/IP protocols widely deployed to provide Internet connective worldwide. The World Wide Web with its widespread usefulness has become an integral part of the Internet. Therefore, this course also puts emphasis on basic concepts of web design.

At the end of the course the students will be able to: -


  •  Review the current topics in Web & Internet technologies.
  •  Describe the basic concepts for network implementation.
  •  Learn the basic working scheme of the Internet and World Wide Web.
  •  Understand fundamental tools and technologies for web design.

Tuesday, 18 October 2016

Clearerr : C language stdio.h function

Clearerr


Resets error indication

 Declaration:  void clearerr(FILE *stream);

 Remarks:

clearerr resets the named stream's error and end-of-file indicators to 0.

Once the error indicator is set, stream operations continue to return error
status until a call is made to clearerr or rewind.

The end-of-file indicator is reset with each input operation.

 Return Value:  None

stdio.h : C Language Library

Stdio.h


This library has all input and output related function. List of available library functions are follows

clearerr   fclose      fcloseall   fdopen      feof          ferror
fflush       fgetc       fgetchar    fgetpos     fgets         fileno
flushall    fopen      fprintf       fputc        fputchar    fputs
fread        freopen   fscanf       fseek        fsetpos      ftell
fwrite      getc         getchar      gets         getw          perror

Printf : Output Function

Getting Knowledge about input output is the most basic process to start learning any programming language. In C all available function reside in library file whose extension is .h

Stdio.h is header file which has most of the input output related function.I am going to show you most frequently useful function.

Monday, 17 October 2016

HTML an Introduction

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is used to make website around the globe. HTML is easy to learn and supported by the entire browser around the world.

Let’s start with some world of full form. Why “Markup language “has been used in full form?
The Name of markup language has been used because all the HTML code is written inside of <>.

Syntax and Example

<Body bgcolor=”red”>
…………………
………………….
</Body>
HTML Tag Information

Saturday, 15 October 2016

Algorithm

Computer Algorithm


Algorithm : Computer Science 

To understand algorithm you need to understand following terms
  • Computer is a combination of software and hardware.
  • Hardware is physical component of system which we can touch and feel.
  • Software is a collection of related program.
  • Program is a combination of related statement.
  • Statements are actual command which computer follows to perform an action.

Friday, 14 October 2016

Write a program to find smallest and highest number from an array?

Q1. : Write a program to find smallest and highest number from an array?

/*    ##################################
            Girfa : Student Help
            Program : Count Highest/smallest
            For more program visit : http://girfahelp.blogspot.in/2012/09/some-program-of-c-language.html
      ###################################
      */
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
      int ar[5],i,small=0,big=0;
      clrscr();
      for(i=0;i<5;i++)

Flow Chart



Flow Chart

 Flow chart a diagram is use to graphically represent program logic, algorithm and workflow model because A picture is worth a thousand words. Flow chart is easy way to write down programming logic using various symbols which help programming easily convert these symbols of logic into its equivalent code in any language. Flow chart decreases software development process.


The first structured method for document process flow, the "flow process chart", was introduced by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth to members of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in 1921 in the presentation "Process Charts: First Steps in Finding the One Best Way to do Work". The Gilbreths' tools quickly found their way into industrial engineering curricula. In the early 1930s, an industrial engineer, Allan H. Mogensen began training business people in the use of some of the tools of industrial engineering at his Work Simplification Conferences in Lake Placid, New York.

Practice Question Data and Variable C language

Q1. What is difference between sign and unsigned data type in C language?

 Q2. What is difference between float and double data type?

 Q3. What do you understand by garbage data?

 Q4. If a variable is used in any expression without initialization then what will be result?

 Q5. What the use of scientific notation?

Thursday, 13 October 2016

Microsoft Excel Rate Depreciation List for Car Sale

Prepare a worksheet for the following problem:

You are looking to buy a car. You are considering two options: to buy a second hand car and keep it for ten years or to buy a new car and keep it for four years. The depreciation per year is simply the difference between the purchase price and the resale price divided by the numbers of years. The total running cost per year is the sum of service/repair cost, the fuel cost per year (miles per year multiplied by fuel cost per mile) , the tax and the insurance. The total cost per year is the sum of the depreciation and the running costs. You are supposed to calculate average depreciation per year, fuel cost per year, total running cost per year and total cost per year for both the options. Type in labels: car purchase option, initial cost, resale, years ,average depreciation per year, running cost, services/repairs per year, miles per year, fuel cost per mile, fuel cost per year, tax, insurance, total running cost and total cost per year. Prepare the worksheet having all the details as given below:

Wednesday, 12 October 2016

July, 2015 A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX & SHELL PROGRAMMING

July, 2015
A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX & SHELL PROGRAMMING

PART ONE
(Answer all the questions)

1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate one and enter in the “OMR” answer sheet supplied with the question paper, following instructions therein. (1x10)
1.1 The fast and expensive storage device
A) Register
B) Electronic disk
C) Magnetic disk
D) Optical disk
1.2 Which command is used to change protection mode of files starting with the string emp and
ending with 1,2, or 3?
A) chmod u+x emp[1-3]
B) chmod 777 emp*
C) chmod u+r ??? emp
D) chmod 222 emp?

Variable Input Output C Language

c-language-variable-input-o

As you have in previous chapter what is a variable now I am going to demonstrate that how to declare and read/write into a variable.
Declaration syntax

Declare single variable

Data_type Variable_name;

Declare more than one variable

Data_type Var_name1,var_name2…var_nameN

Declare and initialize

Data_type var_name1=val1,var_name2=val2…var_nameN=valM

Variable Declaration

When you make a variable. It’s known as declaration in terms of C language. Declaration request OS for claiming space on physical memory.

Initialization

First value assign to a variable after declaration. What if you didn’t initialize a variable then an unpredicted value assigned which is known as garbage so initialization   is mandatory for denied facing socking result.

Monday, 10 October 2016

January, 2016 A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX & SHELL PROGRAMMING

January, 2016
A8-R4: BASICS OF OS, UNIX & SHELL PROGRAMMING

PART ONE
(Answer all the questions)

1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate one and enter in the “OMR” answer sheet supplied with the question paper, following instructions therein. (1x10)
1.1 What does the following command do?
who | wc –l
A) List the number of users logged in
B) List the users
C) List the number of users in the system
D) Display the content of who command
1.2 What is the default number of files open per user process?
A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
1.3 $ oneko &

Sunday, 9 October 2016

NIELIT Assignment 12 : Basics of Os, Unix and Shell Programming

Assignment 12

a) Write a command to change modification time of a file without modifying the
file.

b) Write a command to display name of a file in your current directory whose
size is maximum.

NIELIT Assignment 11 : Basics of Os, Unix and Shell Programming

Assignment 11.

a) Write a command to convert contents of a file a.txt to upper case

b) Write sequence of commands to convert 1st line of a file a.txt to upper case

NIELIT Assignment 10 : Basics of Os, Unix and Shell Programming

Assignment 10.

Using vi editor

a) Write a command to undo last action.

b) Write a command to create abbreviation LU as Linux Unix.

NIELIT Assignment 10 : Basics of Os, Unix and Shell Programming

Assignment 10.

Using vi editor

a) Write a command to undo last action.

b) Write a command to create abbreviation LU as Linux Unix.

NIELIT Assignment 9 : Basics of Os, Unix and Shell Programming

Assignment 9.

Using vi editor
a) Write a command to copy line number 1,10 after line number 25.

b) Write a command to move line number 1,10 after line number 25.

NIELIT Assignment 8 : Basics of Os, Unix and Shell Programming

Assignment 8.

Using vi editor write commands to do the following
a) Combine five lines into a single line.

b) Search a pattern printf and then repeat the search in opposite direction.

NIELIT Assignment 7 : Basics of Os, Unix and Shell Programming

Assignment 7.

a) Use chmod –w . and then try to create and remove a file in the current
directory. What is its output.

b) Run the commands (i) ls –ld . and (ii) ls –l .. Explain its output.

NIELIT Assignment 6 : Basics of Os, Unix and Shell Programming

Assignment 6.

a) Write a command to compare two text files.

b) Write a command to copy a file with permission 444.Copy it again and explain
your observation.

NIELIT Assignment 5 : Basics of Os, Unix and Shell Programming

Assignment 5.

a) How does the command mv bar1 bar2 behave , where both bar1 and bar2 are directories, when (i) bar2 exists and (ii)bar2 does not exist

b) Write a command to display lines common to a.txt and b.txt?

c) Write a command to display lines unique to a.txt?

NIELIT Assignment 4 : Basics of Os, Unix and Shell Programming


Assignment 4.

a) Run the following command and explain its output
(i) cd ../.. (ii)mkdir ../bin (iii)rmdir .. (iv)ls ..

b) Write a command to remove entire directory structure
DOEACC/ALEVEL/AL55 in one command?

NIELIT Assignment 3 : Basics of Os, Unix and Shell Programming

Assignment 3.

a) Convert the decimal number 192 to octal and hexadecimal using bc command.

b) Run ps , the script command and run ps again . What is its output. Explain

NIELIT Assignment 2 : Basics of Os, Unix and Shell Programming

Assignment 2.

a) Explore the filesystem tree using cd, ls, pwd and cat. Look in /bin, /usr/bin, /sbin, /tmp and /boot. What do you see?.

b) Explore /dev. Can you identify what devices are available? Which are character-oriented and which are block-oriented? Can you identify your tty (terminal) device (typing who am i might help); who is the owner of your tty

NIELIT Assignment 1: Basics of Os, Unix and Shell Programming

Assignment 1.

Try the following command sequence and write its output:
cd ; pwd ;ls -al ; cd . ;pwd (where did that get you?) ; cd .. ;pwd ; ls -al ; cd .. ; pwd;ls -al ;cd

UGC Net Computer Science Paper 3 July-16 Page 5

41. Which of the following statements is not correct ?
(1) HTML is not screen precise formatting language.
(2) HTML does not specify a logic.
(3) DHTML is used for developing highly interactive web pages.
(4) HTML is a programming language.

Answer D
Expiation : No, HTML is not a programming language. The "M" stands for "Markup". Generally, a programming language allows you to describe some sort of process of doing something, whereas HTML is a way of adding context and structure to text.

42. When one object reference variable is assigned to another object reference variable then
(1) a copy of the object is created.
(2) a copy of the reference is created.
(3) a copy of the reference is not created.
(4) it is illegal to assign one object reference variable to another object reference
variable.

Answer : B
Explanation : A reference variable in C++ is an alternate name/alias of a variable/object, which must be initialized at the declaration time. One a reference variable has been assign an object address then it became an alias of that object so any change from reference variable will affect original object data. So we can say that a reference variable is a copy of refer variable/object.

class test
{
     int i;
     public:
     test()
     {
          i=0;
     }
     void change()
     {
          i++;
     }
     void print()
     {
          cout<<endl<<i;
     }
};
void main()
{
     test ob1;
     test &ob2=ob1;
     ob1.change();
     ob2.print();
     ob1.change();
     ob2.print();

}

Introduction of Variable in C Language

Variable in any programming language when we start programming then first thing which we start with is variable. This chapter will give full knowledge of variable’s operation .So let’s start learning process with constant.

Constant

A constant is a value that newer get change. Like value of g (gravitational force) is 9.8, value of PI is 3.14 or your date of birth. Examples of different type of constant are follows

Integer


Integer is numbers that exclude decimal part. For Example if I ask to you that how many siblings you have. Your reply will always be in integer without decimal part.
123,123.45,5

Saturday, 8 October 2016

Friday, 7 October 2016

C Language Data Type

A block diagram can represent a system working model .Here I am going to show you block diagram of computer which is also  follows by many types of machines.
Block diagram of computer

Thursday, 6 October 2016

Features of C Language

C Language Feature

Modular

C language is also known as building block of function because everything you have do in C with the help of functions. That is why C language uses modular approach to solve huge problem through small modular approach. Modules make our work easy to solve any type of programming problem in a simple way. example of modules are function. A function is a collection of statements which design for some specific task.

Recursion

When a function called by itself known as recursion. Recursion helps to solve a complicated task in a few line of code which decrease compile time and increases software performance.

A8-R4 : BASICS OF OS, UNIX AND SHELL PROGRAMMING Syllabus

Objective of the Course


The objective of the course is to make students aware of the functioning of a multi-user operating
system. This course will serve as a foundation course for the higher level course in Unix. The
students are expected to learn the commands while doing practical and emphasis should be
given to those switches/options and flags, which are most frequently used in real life.

After completion of the course students will be able to:

   • Understand Operating System concepts.
   • Use System calls and memory management.
   • Use Unix commands and editors.
   • Carry out Unix File management and shell programming in Unix.
   • Do Network configuration and security management in Unix.

Wednesday, 5 October 2016

Save Image In Access and Retrieve in Datagridview Using VB.net

This small project will help you to understand how can you handle image processing in your VB.net Window Application. There are many times when we want to save images in our project software for instance  in school software Saving student image. So you can achieved this through following approach

  1. Saving Image into database
  2. Saving image into a folder
First approach is not so much popular because image get more size than normal data  So your database saved thousands of byte for an image which lead decline in record retrieval. if you want to follow this approach click on Following Link

Save Image into MS Access  database

This post deal with second approach because its good practice to save information into database and image in a folder . you can save image name into database or rename uploaded image as your table  ID (PK) field value. I am saving image name into database which is easy to implement but renaming image is more suitable because its decrease  database storage.

Screen Shot

Add Image
Image Add Screen

Dennis Ritchie Computer Scientist


Dennis  Ritchie Computer Scientist



Dennis was an American computer scientist. He created the C programming language and, his colleague Ken Thompson, the Unix operating system. Ritchie and Thompson received the Turing Award from the ACM in 1983, the Hamming Medal from the IEEE in 1990 and the National Medal of Technology from President Clinton in 1999. Ritchie was the head of Lucent Technologies System

Martin Richards (computer scientist)

Martin Richards

Martin Richards (born 21 July 1940) is a British computer scientist known for his development of the BCPL programming language which is both part of early research into portable software, and the ancestor of the B programming language invented by Ken Thompson in early versions of Unix and which Dennis Ritchie in turn used as the basis of his widely used C programming language.

History of C Language

Timescale of C language History

History of C Language

1966

BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) is a procedural, imperative, and structured computer programming language designed by MartinRichards of the University of Cambridge in 1966.This language for invented to design compiler for other languages. Later on BCPL became B Language. Some people say BCPL means before C language.

Monday, 3 October 2016

C Language Introdunction

C language is general purpose computer programming language. It is in category of high level language with low level facility which enables you to direct access of your computer hardware. C language is also known as building block of function because all the programming task is implemented through function whether it is user defined or built in any library function. Mainly C language is used for system programming from the time of it had been invented.

C Language Introdunction

C language is general purpose computer programming language. It is in category of high level language with low level facility which enables you to direct access of your computer hardware. C language is also known as building block of function because all the programming task is implemented through function whether it is user defined or built in any library function. Mainly C language is used for system programming from the time of it had been invented.

C Language Introdunction

C language is general purpose computer programming language support structure approach of programming. It is in the category of high level programming language with low level feature which enables you to direct access of your computer hardware. C language is also known as building block of function because all the programming task is implemented through function whether it is user defined or built in any library function. Mainly C language is used for system programming from the time of it had been invented.

Sunday, 2 October 2016

July, 2010 A7-R4: INTRODUCTION TO DBMS

 July, 2010
A7-R4: INTRODUCTION TO DBMS

PART ONE
(Answer all the questions)
1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate one and enter in the “tear-off” answer sheet attached to the question paper, following instructions therein. (1x10)
1.1 Description of data stored in database is called
A) Schema
B) Meta Data
C) Information
D) None of the above
1.2 When one transaction updates a database item and then transaction fails for some reason.
The updated item is accessed by another transaction before it is changed back to its original
value is a
A) Lost update
B) Temporary update
C) Incorrect summary
D) None of the above

January, 2011 A7-R4: INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

January, 2011
A7-R4: INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

PART ONE
(Answer all the questions)

1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate one and enter in the “tear-off” answer sheet attached to the question paper, following instructions therein. (1x10)

1.1 Given the relation schema:
EMPLOYEE(EMP_NUM,EMP_NAME, JOB_CODE)
JOB(JOB_CODE, JOB_DESCRIPTION)
What is the cardinality of relationship between entities EMPLOYEE and JOB?
A) One to One
B) One to Many
C) Many to One
D) Many to Many
1.2 Given the relation schema R(A,B,C,D)and functional dependencies C-->B and AB-->C,D.
What is the highest normal form of Relation R?
A) 2NF
B) 3NF
C) BCNF
D) 1NF

July, 2011 A7-R4: INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

July, 2011
A7-R4: INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

PART ONE
(Answer all the questions)

1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate one and enter in the “tear-off” answer sheet attached to the question paper, following instructions therein. (1x10)
1.1 A view is a
A) Base table
B) Derived table
C) Named derived table
D) None of the above
1.2 System failures are also known as
A) Soft crashes
B) Media crashes
C) Hard crashes
D) System failures are non-existent

January, 2012 A7-R4: INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

January, 2012
A7-R4: INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


PART ONE
(Answer all the questions)

1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate one and enter in the “tear-off” answer sheet attached to the question paper, following instructions therein. (1x10)
1.1 Which one of the following is not an example of 1:N relationship?
A) Faculty-belongsto-Department
B) BANK-has-Branches
C) University-has-Vicechancellor
D) None of the above
1.2 Consider the relation R(ABCDE) with following functional dependencies:
AB ® C, CD ® E, DE ® B
The key of the relation is
A) AC
B) AB
C) ABD
D) A

July, 2012 A7-R4: INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

July, 2012
A7-R4: INTRODUCTION TO DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS


PART ONE
(Answer all the questions)

1. Each question below gives a multiple choice of answers. Choose the most appropriate one and enter in the “tear-off” answer sheet attached to the question paper, following instructions therein. (1x10)
1.1 The language used application programs to request data from the DBMS is referred to as
A) DML
B) DDL
C) Query Language
D) All of the above
1.2 When two transactions run concurrently types of problems encounter are
A) Data delete Problem, Dirty read problem, Incorrect summary problem
B) Lost update problem, Dirty read problem, Incorrect summary problem
C) Lost update problem, Data delete Problem, Incorrect summary problem
D) Lost update problem, Dirty read problem, Data delete Problem

Saturday, 1 October 2016

Artistic Website Full Source Code Free Download

Banner Artistic  Website

Artistic Website Full Source Code Free Download


If you are art lover then this website is best for you. Virtual it seems that you are working on letter pad.Because a true letter pad is used as main background image for all the pages. If you want to make a website with a traditional graphic like letter then this template is for you.

Feature

  • Letter pad background
  •  Article look
  • Light weight