Saturday, 27 June 2015

Information and communications technology,G2C,G2B,G2G,G2E,e-Governance,e-Government


Information and communications technology

Information and communications technology (ICT) is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is a more specific term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management.



Electronic commerce


Electronic commerce or eCommerce is a term for any type of business, or commercial transaction, that involves the transfer of information across the Internet. It covers a range of different types of businesses, from consumer based retail sites, through auction or music sites, to business exchanges trading goods and services between corporations. It is currently one of the most important aspects of the Internet to emerge.

Ecommerce allows consumers to electronically exchange goods and services with no barriers of time or distance. Electronic commerce has expanded rapidly over the past five years and is predicted to continue at this rate, or even accelerate. In the near future the boundaries between "conventional" and "electronic" commerce will become increasingly blurred as more and more businesses move sections of their operations onto the Internet.

G2C

The electronic commerce activities performed between the government and its citizens or consumers, including paying taxes, registering vehicles, and providing information and services


G2C (Government to Citizen) is a term that refers to the relationships between organizations (subjects) of public administration and a citizen. The designation can be used for any relationship between the subject of public administration and the citizen, most often it is used as one of the basic relationship within e-Government models. The initiative comes from a federal organization (public administration) and citizens are the target group.

Use of the G2C in practice: G2C concept is used for expressing the relationship between public administration and citizens. The relationship may refer the demand for information from the citizen in any life situation or a transfer of an official document to the citizen. The abbreviation is usually used to refer to the ICT solution that converts such communication to the electronic form or to describe a solution that simplifies the communication between public administration and citizens (e.g. office website or public service catalog).

G2B

Government-to-business, referring to the conducting of transactions between government bodies and business via the Internet.

Government-to-Business (G2B) is the online non-commercial interaction between local and central government and the commercial business sector with the purpose of providing businesses information and advice on e-business 'best practices'. G2B:Refers to the conduction through the Internet between government agencies and trading companies. B2G:Professional transactions between the company and the district, city, or federal regulatory agencies. B2G usually include recommendations to complete the measurement and evaluation of books and contracts.

G2G

The aim of G2G is to enable governments and organizations related to them to more easily work together and to better serve citizens within key lines of business.

Government to government (G2G) is the electronic sharing of data and/or information systems between government agencies, departments or organizations. The goal of G2G is to support e-government initiatives by improving communication, data access and data sharing.

G2C

The goal of Government to Customer (G2C) e-Governance is to offer a variety of ICT services to citizens in an efficient and economical manner, and to strengthen the relationship between government and citizens using technology.

G2C (Government to Citizen) is a term that refers to the relationships between organizations (subjects) of public administration and a citizen. The designation can be used for any relationship between the subject of public administration and the citizen, most often it is used as one of the basic relationship within e-Government models. The initiative comes from a federal organization (public administration) and citizens are the target group.

G2E

The objective of G2E is agencies to be able to improve effectiveness and efficiency, eliminating delays in processing and improving employee satisfaction and retention. Internal efficiency and effectiveness, adopting commercial best practices in government operation in areas such as supply chain management, financial management and knowledge management. The category of e-government that focuses on interactions between government and government employees to support transactions such as payroll and pension plans, obtaining training information, and accessing benefit eligibility information.

eGovernment

The word eGovernment translates literally as "electronic government". However, the term eGovernment has established itself worldwide as meaning "the administration of government by means of electronic technology". In general, it means the simplification of work routines and processes through the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the areas of information, communication and transaction within and between state institutions as well as between the government and citizens or



eGovernment is classified into the following areas:


  • · Information: Making information available online, for example, on the Web site of a public authority.

  • · Communication: The ability to interactively access and exchange information.

  • · Transaction: The actual carrying out of services, including the signation of application forms and electronic delivery of official documents and notifications.



e-Governance in India

The National e-Governance Plan of Indian Government seeks to lay the foundation and provide the impetus for long-term growth of e-Governance within the country. This section provides information on creation of the right governance and institutional mechanisms, setting up the core infrastructure and policies and implementation of a number of Mission Mode Projects at the Center, State and integrated service levels.

Website : http://india.gov.in/e-governance

Governance

The term 'Governance' is wider than 'Government'. Governance may be an activity of governing/controlling a country by its Government, controlling of an organisation or a company by its CEO or Board of Directors or controlling of a house hold by the head of the house, Accordingly E-governance may also involve governing of a country, organisation, company or a household, however with the help of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).

But when we talk of E-Governance in the popular parlance we only refer to the governing of a Country/State using ICT. E-governance therefore means the application of ICT to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of exchange of information and transaction:


  • between Governments,
  • between Government agencies,
  • between Government and Citizens
  • between Government and businesses

Difference between e-Government and e-governance

e-Government and e-governance can be defined as two very distinct terms. e-Governance is a broader topic that deals with the whole spectrum of the relationship and networks within government regarding the usage and application of ICTs e-Government is actually a narrower discipline dealing with the development of online services to the citizen, more the e on any particular government service - such as e-tax, e-transportation or e-health. e-Governance is a wider concept that defines and assesses the impacts technologies are having on the practice and administration of governments and the relationships between public servants and the wider society, such as dealings with the elected bodies or outside groups such as not for profits organizations, ngos or private sector corporate entities. E-Governance encompasses a series of necessary steps for government agencies to develop and administer to ensure successful implementation of e-government services to the public at large.

Examples of e-government and e-governance


E-government should enable anyone visiting a city website to communicate and interact with city employees via the Internet with graphical user interfaces (GUI), instant-messaging (IM), audio/video presentations, and in any way more sophisticated than a simple email letter to the address provided at the site” and “the use of technology to enhance the access to and delivery of government services to benefit citizens, business partners and employees”. The focus should be on:

· The use of information and communication technologies, and particularly the Internet, as a tool to achieve better government.

· The use of information and communication technologies in all facets of the operations of a government organization.

· The continuous optimization of service delivery, constituency participation and governance by transforming internal and external relationships through technology, the Internet and new media.

Whilst e-government has traditionally been understood as being centered around the operations of government, e-governance is understood to extend the scope by including citizen engagement and participation in governance. As such, following in line with the OECD definition of e-government, e-governance can be defined as the use of ICTs as a tool to achieve better governance.